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Annonaceous acetogenins graviola paw paw
graviola fact sheet-must read=this site rain-tree sells both leaves and capsules
Scripps report on Antibody-Catalyzed Organic and Organometallic Transformations
"Annonaceous acetogenins, particularly those with adjacent bis-tetrahydrofuran (THF) rings, have remarkable cytotoxic, antitumor, antimalarial, immunosuppressive, pesticidal, and antifeedant activities. Many of these fatty acid derivatives have similar carbon skeletons; their striking diversity originates mainly from the relative and absolute configuration of their various stereogenic oxygen functions. "
group home of pawpaw..the tree
"the potent antitumor, pesticidal and/or insect antifeedant properties of the Annonaceous acetogenins have been reported and patented. Pawpaw plants produce natural compounds (annonaceous acetogenins) in leaf, bark and twig tissues, that possess both highly anti-tumor and pesticidal properties. Mode of action studies in three separate laboratories have recently determined that acetogenins are superb inhibitors (at subnanomolar concentrations) of Complex I in mitochondrial electron transport systems from several organisms. Fractionation of plants (Annonaaceae) has yielded many extremely potent acetogenins. Many of them have cytotoxicity with ED50 values as low as 10-9 ug/ml. Active compounds are submitted to the NIH anti-AIDS screen. Work is continuing with a number of other active plant species. This work was funded by NCI/NIH. "
92 citations on MEDLINEABSTRACT 1AUTHOR: Betancur-Galvis L, Saez J, Granados H, Salazar A, Ossa J
Antitumor and antiviral activity of Colombian medicinal plant extracts.
SOURCE: Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz; 94(4):531-5 1999 UI: 99375419 ABSTRACT:
Extracts of nine species of plants traditionally used in Colombia for the treatment of a variety of diseases were tested in vitro for their potential antitumor (cytotoxicity) and antiherpetic activity. MTT (Tetrazolium blue) and Neutral Red colorimetric assays were used to evaluate the reduction of viability of cell cultures in presence and absence of the extracts. MTT was also used to evaluate the effects of the extracts on the lytic activity of herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2). The 50% cytotoxic concentration (CC50) and the 50% inhibitory concentration of the viral effect (EC50) for each extract were calculated by linear regression analysis. Extracts from Annona muricata, A. cherimolia and Rollinia membranacea, known for their cytotoxicity were used as positive controls. Likewise, acyclovir and heparin were used as positive controls of antiherpetic activity. Methanolic extract from Annona sp. on HEp-2 cells presented a CC50 value at 72 hr of 49.6x10(3)mg/ml. Neither of the other extracts examined showed a significant cytotoxicity. The aqueous extract from Beta vulgaris, the ethanol extract from Callisia grasilis and the methanol extract Annona sp. showed some antiherpetic activity with acceptable therapeutic indexes (the ratio of CC50 to EC50). These species are good candidates for further activity-monitored fractionation to identify active principles.
abstract IIAUTHOR: Kim GS, Zeng L, Alali F, Rogers LL, Wu FE, Sastrodihardjo S, McLaughlin JL
TITLE: Muricoreacin and murihexocin C, mono-tetrahydrofuran acetogenins, from the leaves of Annona muricata. SOURCE:
Phytochemistry; 49(2):565-71 1998 UI: 98419679 ABSTRACT:
Bioactivity-directed fractionation of the leaves of Annona muricata L. (Annonaceae) resulted in the isolation of two new Annonaceous acetogenins, muricoreacin (1) and murihexocin C (2). Compounds 1 and 2 showed significant cytotoxicities among six human tumor cell lines with selectivities to the prostate adenocarinoma (PC-3) and pancreatic carcinoma (PACA-2) cell lines.
ABSTRACT 3AUTHOR: Kim GS, Zeng L, Alali F, Rogers LL, Wu FE, McLaughlin JL, Sastrodihardjo S
TITLE: Two new mono-tetrahydrofuran ring acetogenins, annomuricin E and muricapentocin, from the leaves of Annona muricata.
SOURCE: J Nat Prod; 61(4):432-6 1998 UI: 98245375
ABSTRACT: Bioactivity-directed fractionation of the leaf extract of Annona muricata L. (Annonaceae) has resulted in the isolation of two new Annonaceous acetogenins, annomuricine (1) and muricapentocin (2). Compounds 1 and 2 are monotetrahydrofuran ring acetogenins bearing two flanking hydroxyl groups; however, each has three additional hydroxyl groups. Compound 1 has an erythro 1,2-diol, and 2 has a 1,5,9-triol moiety. Both 1 and 2 showed significant cytotoxicities against six types of human tumors, with selectivities to the pancreatic carcinoma (PACA-2) and colon adenocarcinoma (HT-29) cell lines.
ABSTRACT 4AUTHOR: Zeng L, Wu FE, Oberlies NH, McLaughlin JL, Sastrodihadjo S
TITLE: Five new monotetrahydrofuran ring acetogenins from the leaves of Annona muricata.
SOURCE: J Nat Prod; 59(11):1035-42 1996 UI: 97102235
ABSTRACT: Bioactivity-directed fractionation of the leaves of Annona muricata resulted in the isolation of annopentocins A (1), B (2), and C(3), and cis- and trans-annomuricin-D-ones (4, 5). Compounds 1-3 are the first acetogenins reported bearing a mono-tetrahydrofuran (THF) ring with one flanking hydroxyl, on the hydrocarbon side, and another hydroxyl, on the lactone side, that is one carbon away from the THF ring. Compounds 4 and 5 were obtained in a mixture and are new mono-THF ring acetogenins bearing two flanking hydroxyls and an erythro-diol located between the THF and the ketolactone rings. Compound 1 was selectively cytotoxic to pancreatic carcinoma cells (PACA-2), and 2 and 3 were selectively cytotoxic to lung carcinoma cells (A-549); the mixture of 4 and 5 was selectively cytotoxic for the lung (A-549), colon (HT-29), and pancreatic (PACA-2) cell lines with potencies equal to or exceeding those of Adriamycin.
ABSTRACT 5AUTHOR: Rieser MJ, Gu ZM, Fang XP, Zeng L, Wood KV, McLaughlin JL
TITLE: Five novel mono-tetrahydrofuran ring acetogenins from the seeds of Annona muricata.
SOURCE: J Nat Prod; 59(2):100-8 1996 UI: 96274703
ABSTRACT: Bioactivity-directed fractionation of the seeds of Annona muricata L. (Annonaceae) resulted in the isolation of five new compounds: cis-annonacin (1), cis-annonacin-10-one (2), cis-goniothalamicin (3), arianacin (4), and javoricin (5). Three of these (1-3) are among the first cis mono-tetrahydrofuran ring acetogenins to be reported. NMR analyses of published model synthetic compounds, prepared cyclized formal acetals, and prepared Mosher ester derivatives permitted the determinations of absolute stereochemistries. Bioassays of the pure compounds, in the brine shrimp test, for the inhibition of crown gall tumors, and in a panel of human solid tumor cell lines for cytotoxicity, evaluated relative potencies. Compound 1 was selectively cytotoxic to colon adenocarcinoma cells (HT-29) in which it was 10,000 times the

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