graviola fact sheet-must read=this site rain-tree sells both leaves and capsules
Scripps report on Antibody-Catalyzed Organic and Organometallic Transformations
"Annonaceous acetogenins, particularly those with adjacent bis-tetrahydrofuran (THF) rings, have remarkable
cytotoxic, antitumor, antimalarial, immunosuppressive, pesticidal, and antifeedant activities. Many of these
fatty acid derivatives have similar carbon skeletons; their striking diversity originates mainly from the relative
and absolute configuration of their various stereogenic oxygen functions. "
group home of pawpaw..the tree
"the potent antitumor, pesticidal and/or insect antifeedant properties of the Annonaceous acetogenins
have been reported and patented. Pawpaw plants produce natural compounds (annonaceous
acetogenins) in leaf, bark and twig tissues, that possess both highly anti-tumor and pesticidal
properties. Mode of action studies in three separate laboratories have recently determined that
acetogenins are superb inhibitors (at subnanomolar concentrations) of Complex I in mitochondrial
electron transport systems from several organisms. Fractionation of plants (Annonaaceae) has
yielded many extremely potent acetogenins. Many of them have cytotoxicity with ED50 values as
low as 10-9 ug/ml. Active compounds are submitted to the NIH anti-AIDS screen. Work is
continuing with a number of other active plant species. This work was funded by NCI/NIH.
92 citations on MEDLINEABSTRACT 1AUTHOR: Betancur-Galvis L, Saez J, Granados H, Salazar A, Ossa J
Antitumor and antiviral activity of Colombian medicinal plant extracts.
Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz; 94(4):531-5 1999 UI: 99375419
Extracts of nine species of plants traditionally used in Colombia for the treatment of a variety
of diseases were tested in vitro for their potential antitumor (cytotoxicity) and antiherpetic
activity. MTT (Tetrazolium blue) and Neutral Red colorimetric assays were used to evaluate
the reduction of viability of cell cultures in presence and absence of the extracts. MTT was
also used to evaluate the effects of the extracts on the lytic activity of herpes simplex virus
type 2 (HSV-2). The 50% cytotoxic concentration (CC50) and the 50% inhibitory
concentration of the viral effect (EC50) for each extract were calculated by linear regression
analysis. Extracts from Annona muricata, A. cherimolia and Rollinia membranacea, known
for their cytotoxicity were used as positive controls. Likewise, acyclovir and heparin were
used as positive controls of antiherpetic activity. Methanolic extract from Annona sp. on
HEp-2 cells presented a CC50 value at 72 hr of 49.6x10(3)mg/ml. Neither of the other
extracts examined showed a significant cytotoxicity. The aqueous extract from Beta vulgaris,
the ethanol extract from Callisia grasilis and the methanol extract Annona sp. showed some
antiherpetic activity with acceptable therapeutic indexes (the ratio of CC50 to EC50). These
species are good candidates for further activity-monitored fractionation to identify active
Kim GS, Zeng L, Alali F, Rogers LL, Wu FE, Sastrodihardjo S, McLaughlin JL
Muricoreacin and murihexocin C, mono-tetrahydrofuran acetogenins, from the leaves of
Phytochemistry; 49(2):565-71 1998 UI: 98419679
Bioactivity-directed fractionation of the leaves of Annona muricata L. (Annonaceae) resulted
in the isolation of two new Annonaceous acetogenins, muricoreacin (1) and murihexocin C
(2). Compounds 1 and 2 showed significant cytotoxicities among six human tumor cell lines
with selectivities to the prostate adenocarinoma (PC-3) and pancreatic carcinoma
(PACA-2) cell lines.
Kim GS, Zeng L, Alali F, Rogers LL, Wu FE, McLaughlin JL, Sastrodihardjo S
Two new mono-tetrahydrofuran ring acetogenins, annomuricin E and muricapentocin, from
the leaves of Annona muricata.
J Nat Prod; 61(4):432-6 1998 UI: 98245375
Bioactivity-directed fractionation of the leaf extract of Annona muricata L. (Annonaceae) has
resulted in the isolation of two new Annonaceous acetogenins, annomuricine (1) and
muricapentocin (2). Compounds 1 and 2 are monotetrahydrofuran ring acetogenins bearing
two flanking hydroxyl groups; however, each has three additional hydroxyl groups.
Compound 1 has an erythro 1,2-diol, and 2 has a 1,5,9-triol moiety. Both 1 and 2 showed
significant cytotoxicities against six types of human tumors, with selectivities to the pancreatic
carcinoma (PACA-2) and colon adenocarcinoma (HT-29) cell lines.
Zeng L, Wu FE, Oberlies NH, McLaughlin JL, Sastrodihadjo S
Five new monotetrahydrofuran ring acetogenins from the leaves of Annona muricata.
J Nat Prod; 59(11):1035-42 1996 UI: 97102235
Bioactivity-directed fractionation of the leaves of Annona muricata resulted in the isolation of
annopentocins A (1), B (2), and C(3), and cis- and trans-annomuricin-D-ones (4, 5).
Compounds 1-3 are the first acetogenins reported bearing a mono-tetrahydrofuran (THF)
ring with one flanking hydroxyl, on the hydrocarbon side, and another hydroxyl, on the
lactone side, that is one carbon away from the THF ring. Compounds 4 and 5 were obtained
in a mixture and are new mono-THF ring acetogenins bearing two flanking hydroxyls and an
erythro-diol located between the THF and the ketolactone rings. Compound 1 was
selectively cytotoxic to pancreatic carcinoma cells (PACA-2), and 2 and 3 were selectively
cytotoxic to lung carcinoma cells (A-549); the mixture of 4 and 5 was selectively cytotoxic
for the lung (A-549), colon (HT-29), and pancreatic (PACA-2) cell lines with potencies
equal to or exceeding those of Adriamycin.
Rieser MJ, Gu ZM, Fang XP, Zeng L, Wood KV, McLaughlin JL
Five novel mono-tetrahydrofuran ring acetogenins from the seeds of Annona muricata.
J Nat Prod; 59(2):100-8 1996 UI: 96274703
Bioactivity-directed fractionation of the seeds of Annona muricata L. (Annonaceae) resulted
in the isolation of five new compounds: cis-annonacin (1), cis-annonacin-10-one (2),
cis-goniothalamicin (3), arianacin (4), and javoricin (5). Three of these (1-3) are among the
first cis mono-tetrahydrofuran ring acetogenins to be reported. NMR analyses of published
model synthetic compounds, prepared cyclized formal acetals, and prepared Mosher ester
derivatives permitted the determinations of absolute stereochemistries. Bioassays of the pure
compounds, in the brine shrimp test, for the inhibition of crown gall tumors, and in a panel of
human solid tumor cell lines for cytotoxicity, evaluated relative potencies. Compound 1 was
selectively cytotoxic to colon adenocarcinoma cells (HT-29) in which it was 10,000 times the
Some people are trying Artemether for osteosarcoma and breast cancer. You don't need a prescription. It is about $60 dollars a bottle.(from Wellcare
Pharmaceuticals in Los
Angeles (310-377-0056) It is used for malaria. You can read about it here The theory is trapping iron.." Seattle scientists have shown that a compound
extracted from the wormwood plant seeks out
and destroys breast cancer cells, while leaving
healthy cells unscathed."
Here is a message board on Discussion of Artesunate for Cancer Therapy. there is a link there where price appears to be $6.00 .