Dry Coughing and in puppies and dogs kennel coughKennel cough or Tracheobronchitis ,Bordetellosis, or Bordetella. an infectious disease of the upper airway is caused by several different bacterial and viral agents. The trachea (windpipe) and bronchi become inflammed and create the cough.
Kennel cough is highly contagious and usually found in highly populated areas, especially where ventilation isn't good such as animal shelters,kennels, pet stores and dog shows.
My littermate schnauzers Morgy and Hammy came down with kennel cough from being in a pet store for less than a week.
The symptoms of kennel cough or tracheobronchitis is a harsh cough, usually contact with other dogs. It can sound like a dry sinus cough. There can also be conjunctivitis and nasal discharge Secondary infections and pneumonia can arise. Discolored nasal mucuous, decrease in activity, appetite are also symptoms of kennel cough. The symptoms will usually appear a week after the dog is exposed to kennel cough
Treatment may be antibiotics and cough suppressants and curtailment of strenuous exercise..A relatively new antibiotic azithromycin may be prescribed or Clavamox,Baytril (enrofloxacin) and Doxycycline. The kennel cough may last for two weeks to 20 days...
: Vet Immunol Immunopathol. 2003 Aug 15;94(3-4):113-21. :
Immune modulation following immunization with polyvalent vaccines in dogs.
Strasser A, May B, Teltscher A, Wistrela E, Niedermuller H.
Institute of Physiology, University of Veterinary Medicine Vienna, Veterinaerplatz 1, A-1210, Wien, Austria.
A decline in T-cell-mediated immunity and transient state of immunosuppression after immunization has been reported in dogs. Nevertheless, dogs are still routinely vaccinated with polyvalent live vaccines and severe disease does not generally occur. In order to investigate these effects on the canine immune system and to elucidate possible mechanisms we determined the following immune parameters in the blood of 33 clinically sound German shepherd dogs before and after standard vaccination with a polyvalent vaccine against distemper, parvovirus, viral hepatitis, leptospirosis, kennel cough and rabies: white and differential blood cell count, the serum concentrations and/or activities of IL-1, IL-2, IFN-gamma, TNF-alpha, neopterin and IgG, natural killer (NK) cell activity, bactericidal activity and complement hemolytic activity, lymphocyte proliferation test (LPT) and nitroblue tetrazolium test (NBT).Our major findings were that significant postvaccinal decreases in T-cell mitogenic response to PHA and in neutrophil function and neopterin serum concentration were accompanied by simultaneous increase in plasma IgG and hemolytic complement activity. This suggests a transient shift in the balance between cell-mediated and humoral (T(H)1/T(H)2) immunity rather than immunosuppression.These results do not imply that dogs should not receive live vaccines, as the response to vaccines just seems to create a state of altered homeostasis when immunization elicits protection by humoral and cell-mediated immunity. However, these recognized compromises of immune function should be considered and vaccines still be applied only in healthy animals and strictly according to the rules and regulations given by the manufacturer
Schweiz Arch Tierheilkd. 2003 May;145(5):223-31. :
Echinacea powder: treatment for canine chronic and seasonal upper respiratory tract infections.
Reichling J, Fitzi J, Furst-Jucker J, Bucher S, Saller R.
Institut fur Pharmazie und Molekulare Biotechnologie, Ruprecht-Karls-University, Heidelberg, Germany.
An open multi-centered veterinary clinical trial, comparing conditions before and after treatment with a herbal preparation, containing the powdered root of Echinacea purpurea, was conducted by 6 practicing veterinarians in Switzerland. The plant-based immune stimulant was administered to 41 dogs with manifestations of chronic and seasonal upper respiratory tract infections, including pharyngitis/tonsillitis, bronchitis and kennel cough. Each animal was at an individual stage of the disease, with various symptoms and different severity scores, at start of treatment. There was no control group. Echinacea powder (1:3) was administered with the food at a dose of 1.0 g/10 kg body weight once daily for 8 weeks. Overall efficacy showed significant improvement for 92% of 39 dogs after 4 weeks of treatment and this was confirmed after 8 weeks. Significant reductions of severity and resolution of typical clinical symptoms, of clear nasal secretions, enlargement of lymph nodes, dry cough, dyspnea and dry lung sounds, were evident after 4 weeks. Only two adverse effects, not suspected to be attributable to the study drug, were recorded. Because quality and stability of the Echinacea powder were defined, using an analytical standard and purity tests, these data suggest, that the Echinacea preparation can be recommended as a well tolerated alternative treatment of canine upper respiratory tract infections
: Prev Vet Med. 2002 Jun 25;54(2):141-56. :
Molecular epidemiology of feline bordetellosis in two animal shelters in California, USA.
Foley JE, Rand C, Bannasch MJ, Norris CR, Milan J.
Center for Companion Animal Health, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, CA 95616, USA.
Kennel cough" in dogs in animal shelters is readily transmissible, reduces adoption rates, and commonly leads to the euthanasia of affected dogs. In cats, tracheobronchitis, conjunctivitis, and pneumonia have been associated with Bordetella bronchiseptica infection-but most cases of upper-respiratory infection (URI) probably are caused by herpesvirus and calicivirus, and many B. bronchiseptica culture-positive cats are clinically normal. Our prospective observational study was undertaken to document the contribution of B. bronchiseptica to disease in cats and dogs from two animal shelters undergoing outbreaks of canine kennel cough, to evaluate whether cross-species transmission might have occurred, and to determine if the presence of infected cats represented a risk to dogs. Clinically defined cases of kennel cough in dogs and URI in cats were investigated in two shelters by calculating clinical-disease incidence, alveolar-lavage cytological examination, bacterial and viral cultures, antibiotic-susceptibility testing, and molecular fingerprinting by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis.In a 40-cat and 40-dog "no-kill" shelter, the prevalences of culture positivity were 47% for B. bronchiseptica and 36% for calicivirus at the same time as two resident dogs demonstrated clinical cough. When no dogs had kennel cough 3 months later, 10% of cats were B. bronchiseptica-culture-positive and 63% calicivirus positive. In a large traditional shelter, the incidence of kennel cough in dogs increased over 12 weeks to a maximum of 19 cases/week/120 dogs, during which time the culture prevalence was 23% for B. bronchiseptica in dogs and 47% in cats. Three to 6 months before the kennel-cough epidemic, no dogs or cats were B. bronchiseptica positive. Very little genetic variability was detected in isolates from these shelters; all isolates except one corresponded to a single strain type which was identical to the pattern in a vaccine used in these shelters. Isolates from other cats, a horse, a llama, and a sea otter were genetically distinct from the shelter isolates. There was widespread resistance to cephalosporins and ampicillin, but low or no resistance to amoxicillin/clavulanate, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, tetracycline, and enrofloxacin. Greater percent resistance was observed in the traditional shelter than in the no-kill shelter and feline isolates were more likely to be resistant than canine isolates.
"the majority of cases are not serious resolving on their own in 1 to 2 weeks "