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FELINE AND CANINE DIABETESFeline or Canine Diabetes mellitus, a common endocrine disease, is often called “sugar diabetes” comes in two types.
Feline/Canine diabetes type 1 diabetes is caused by the insufficient production by the pancreas of the hormone known as insulin.
Feline/Canine diabetes Type 2 diabetes is a result of an inadequate response to insulin. Common symptoms to watch for in your dog or cat are excessive drinking and urination, weight loss, signs of poor skin and hair coat, liver disease, vomiting, weakness in the rear legs (diabetic neuropathy), secondary bacterial infections and dehydration. The diabetes in your dog or cat can also lead to ketoacidosis( signs of ketoacidosis are " loss of appetite, vomiting, diarrhea, lethargy, weakness, dehydration, and breathing abnormalities"),become blindness or have kidney problems.
Diabetes mellitus occurs most often in senior obese male cats although it can occur at any age and any breed and any sex. Causes to increase the chances of developing diabetes can be from certain medications, heredity, and obesity.
Cinammon might also help for diabetes II. I know my cats like pumpkin and cinnamon.

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  • Diabetes Care. 2003 Dec;26(12):3215-8. : Cinnamon improves glucose and lipids of people with type 2 diabetes.
    Khan A, Safdar M, Ali Khan MM, Khattak KN, Anderson RA.
    Department of Human Nutrition, NWFP Agricultural University, Peshawar, Pakistan.

    OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to determine whether cinnamon improves blood glucose, triglyceride, total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, and LDL cholesterol levels in people with type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: A total of 60 people with type 2 diabetes, 30 men and 30 women aged 52.2 +/- 6.32 years, were divided randomly into six groups. Groups 1, 2, and 3 consumed 1, 3, or 6 g of cinnamon daily, respectively, and groups 4, 5, and 6 were given placebo capsules corresponding to the number of capsules consumed for the three levels of cinnamon. The cinnamon was consumed for 40 days followed by a 20-day washout period. RESULTS: After 40 days, all three levels of cinnamon reduced the mean fasting serum glucose (18-29%), triglyceride (23-30%), LDL cholesterol (7-27%), and total cholesterol (12-26%) levels; no significant changes were noted in the placebo groups. Changes in HDL cholesterol were not significant. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study demonstrate that intake of 1, 3, or 6 g of cinnamon per day reduces serum glucose, triglyceride, LDL cholesterol, and total cholesterol in people with type 2 diabetes and suggest that the inclusion of cinnamon in the diet of people with type 2 diabetes will reduce risk factors associated with diabetes and cardiovascular diseases.
  • Horm Res. 1998 Sep;50(3):177-82. : Regulation of PTP-1 and insulin receptor kinase by fractions from cinnamon: implications for cinnamon regulation of insulin signalling.
    Imparl-Radosevich J, Deas S, Polansky MM, Baedke DA, Ingebritsen TS, Anderson RA, Graves DJ.
    Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa, USA.
    Bioactive compound(s) extracted from cinnamon potentiate insulin activity, as measured by glucose oxidation in the rat epididymal fat cell assay. Wortmannin, a potent PI 3'-kinase inhibitor, decreases the biological response to insulin and bioactive compound(s) from cinnamon similarly, indicating that cinnamon is affecting an element(s) upstream of PI 3'-kinase. Enzyme studies done in vitro show that the bioactive compound(s) can stimulate autophosphorylation of a truncated form of the insulin receptor and can inhibit PTP-1, a rat homolog of a tyrosine phosphatase (PTP-1B) that inactivates the insulin receptor. No inhibition was found with alkaline phosphate or calcineurin suggesting that the active material is not a general phosphatase inhibitor. It is suggested, then, that a cinnamon compound(s), like insulin, affects protein phosphorylation-dephosphorylation reactions in the intact adipocyte. Bioactive cinnamon compounds may find further use in studies of insulin resistance in adult-onset diabetes.
  • J Agric Food Chem. 2000 Mar;48(3):849-52. : Insulin-like biological activity of culinary and medicinal plant aqueous extracts in vitro.
    Broadhurst CL, Polansky MM, Anderson RA.
    Nutrient Requirements and Functions Laboratory, Beltsville Human Nutrition Research Center, Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Beltsville, Maryland 20705-2350, USA.

    To evaluate the possible effects on insulin function, 49 herb, spice, and medicinal plant extracts were tested in the insulin-dependent utilization of glucose using a rat epididymal adipocyte assay. Cinnamon was the most bioactive product followed by witch hazel, green and black teas, allspice, bay leaves, nutmeg, cloves, mushrooms, and brewer's yeast. The glucose oxidation enhancing bioactivity was lost from cinnamon, tea, witch hazel, cloves, bay leaf and allspice by poly(vinylpyrrolidone) (PVP) treatment, indicating that the active phytochemicals are likely to be phenolic in nature. The activity of sage, mushrooms, and brewers's yeast was not removed by PVP. Some products such as Korean ginseng, flaxseed meal, and basil have been reported to be effective antidiabetic agents; however, they were only marginally active in our assay. Our technique measures direct stimulation of cellular glucose metabolism, so it may be that the active phytochemicals in these plants improve glucose metabolism via other mechanisms or that this in vitro screening is not a reliable predictor of hypoglycemic effects in vivo for some products. In summary, the positive effects of specific plant extracts on insulin activity suggest a possible role of these plants in improving glucose and insulin metabolism
  • J Feline Med Surg. 2003 Jun;5(3):183-9. : Treatment of feline diabetes mellitus using an alpha-glucosidase inhibitor and a low-carbohydrate diet.
    Mazzaferro EM, Greco DS, Turner AS, Fettman MJ.
    Department of Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523, USA.

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of an alpha-glucosidase inhibitor (acarbose), combined with a low-carbohydrate diet on the treatment of naturally occurring diabetes mellitus in cats. Eighteen client-owned cats with naturally occurring diabetes mellitus were entered into the study. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) was performed prior to and 4 months after feeding the diet to determine total body composition, including lean body mass (LBM) and percent body fat. Each cat was fed a commercially available low-carbohydrate canned feline diet and received 12.5mg/cat acarbose orally every 12h with meals. All cats received subcutaneous insulin therapy except one cat in the study group that received glipizide (5mg BID PO). Monthly serum glucose and fructosamine concentrations were obtained, and were used to adjust insulin doses based on individual cat's requirements. Patients were later classified as responders (insulin was discontinued, n=11) and non-responders (continued to require insulin or glipizide, n=7). Responders were initially obese (>28% body fat) and non-responders had significantly less body fat than responders (<28% body fat). Serum fructosamine and glucose concentrations decreased significantly in both responder and non-responder groups over the course of 4 months of therapy. Better results were observed in responder cats, for which exogenous insulin therapy was discontinued, glycemic parameters improved, and body fat decreased. In non-responders, median insulin requirements decreased and glycemic parameters improved significantly, despite continued insulin dependence. The use of a low-carbohydrate diet with acarbose was an effective means of decreasing exogenous insulin dependence and improving glycemic control in a series of client-owned cats with naturally occurring diabetes mellitus.
  • Clin Tech Small Anim Pract. 2002 May;17(2):73-8. : Critical care monitoring considerations for the diabetic patient.
    Connally HE.
    Department of Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado 80523, USA.

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a common endocrine disease encountered in the emergency and critical care setting. The diabetic Ketoacidotic (DKA) animal represents an extreme of the DM patient with regard to hyperglycemia and acid-base and electrolyte derangements. Prompt diagnosis of DKA in a critical patient and rapid initiation of appropriate therapy are necessary for a positive outcome. The steps of treatment, in order of importance, include initiation of intravenous fluid therapy, insulin therapy, electrolyte replacement, and reversal of the metabolic acidosis. The main goals of therapy--including correction of dehydration, electrolyte abnormalities and acidosis via aggressive fluid therapy with electrolyte supplementation and correction of ketoacidosis and hyperglycemia via initiation of insulin therapy--can be achieved if these steps are followed. Because of the severity of metabolic alterations in the DKA animal, frequent and careful monitoring are paramount because they will allow the clinician to tailor treatment to each case.

  • Nutritional management of diabetic dogs
    RL Remillard
    Angell Mem Anim Hosp,Boston,MA USA
    Compendium on Continuing Education for the Practicing Veterinarian, 1999, 21, 8, 699
    The goals of nutritional therapy in the management of diabetes mellitus are to approach physiologic blood glucose levels, match postprandial glucose absorption with insulin therapy, attain and maintain optimal body weight, reduce the likelihood of diabetic complications, and address other concurrent disease conditions amenable to dietary therapy. Managing diabetes mellitus requires a consistent feeding plan and food that minimizes postprandial fluctuations in blood glucose concentrations. Because fiber modulates blood glucose levels and favors optimum body weight maintenance, the single most effective dietary tool in the medical management of diabetic dogs is feeding a diet containing insoluble or soluble fiber at 8% to 18% on a dry-matter basis.
  • Corneal sensitivity in dogs with diabetes mellitus
    . Good KL, Maggs DJ, Hollingsworth SR, Scagliotti RH, Nelson RW.
    Vet Med Teaching Hosp, School of Vet Med, University of California, Davis, CA 95616, USA.
    Am J Vet Res 2003 Jan;64(1):7-11
    OBJECTIVE: To compare aesthesiometer-determined corneal sensitivity between diabetic and nondiabetic dogs and to investigate the correlation between corneal sensitivity and duration of diabetes or status of glycemic control, as estimated by use of glycated blood protein concentrations. ANIMALS: 23 diabetic and 29 nondiabetic normoglycemic dogs. PROCEDURE: A Cochet-Bonnet aesthesiometer was used to measure corneal touch threshold (CTT) in 5 corneal regions of each dog. At the time of ocular examination, duration of diabetes mellitus was estimated from the history, and blood was drawn for assessment of blood glycosylated hemoglobin and serum fructosamine concentrations. RESULTS: Median CTT for central, nasal, dorsal, temporal, and ventral corneal regions in nondiabetic dogs (1.6, 2.3, 2.8, 2.8, and 5.1 g/mm2, respectively) was significantly lower than in diabetic dogs (2.8, 4.0, 5.1, 5.1, and 6.6 g/mm2, respectively). Median regional CTT in diabetic dogs was not significantly correlated with estimated duration of diabetes mellitus or blood glycated protein concentrations. No significant difference was found in regional CTT between eyes of normoglycemic dogs with unilateral cataracts. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Diabetic dogs have significantly reduced corneal sensitivity in all regions, compared with nondiabetic normoglycemic dogs. Regional variation in corneal sensitivity is similar in diabetic and normoglycemic dogs. Neither glycemic control nor duration of diabetes, as estimated, is significantly correlated with corneal hyposensitivity. Corneal nerve dysfunction may be associated with recurrent or nonhealing ulcers in diabetic dogs for which no other underlying cause can be found.
  • LONG-TERM MANAGEMENT OF THE DIABETIC DOG.
    L M. Fleeman,J S. Rand
    The University of Queensland
    Waltham Focus Vol.10, No.3
    KEY POINTS
    · Insulin is the mainstay of therapy for diabetic dogs.
    · The majority of diabetic dogs require twice-daily administration of insulin to control their signs.
    · Insulin and dietary recommendations need to be tailored for each diabetic dog.
    · A consistent insulin-dosing and feeding routine is optimal, although not critical. For practical reasons, a certain amount of compromise may be necessary, and is often not associated with significant clinical consequences.
    · The diet fed should primarily be palatable and nutritionally balanced.
    · Results of recent studies indicate that improved glycaemic control may be achieved in the majority of diabetic dogs if their diet contains increased insoluble fibre.
    · Decreased dietary fat content is recommended if there is concurrent disease of the exocrine pancreas.
    · Blindness due to cataract formation occurs in the majority of diabetic dogs.

    INTRODUCTION
    Diabetes mellitus is a common endocrine disease of middle-aged and older dogs characterised by an absolute or relative deficiency of insulin (1). Insulin administration is the mainstay of therapy in all affected dogs, with long-term treatment involving injections given once or twice each day by the owner. The cause of diabetes in dogs has been poorly characterised and is undoubtedly multifactorial. Genetic predisposition exists (1) and immune-mediated destruction of pancreatic beta-cells has been shown to occur in affected dogs (2-5).

  • Efficacy of protamine zinc insulin for treatment of diabetes mellitus in cats.
    Nelson RW, Lynn RC, Wagner-Mann CC, Michels GM
    Dept of Med and Epidem, School of Vet Med, University of California, Davis 95616, USA.
    J Am Vet Med Assoc 2001 Jan 1;218(1):38-42
    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate effects of protamine zinc insulin (PZI) on control of glycemia in cats with newly diagnosed diabetes mellitus or poorly controlled diabetes. DESIGN: Clinical trial. ANIMALS: 67 diabetic cats. PROCEDURE: 34 cats with newly diagnosed diabetes and 33 cats with poorly controlled diabetes were treated with PZI twice daily for 45 days. Control of glycemia was assessed on days 7, 14, 30, and 45 by evaluation of clinical response, change in body weight, serum fructosamine concentration, blood glucose concentration measured 1, 3, 5, 7, and 9 hours after administration of PZI, lowest blood glucose concentration, and mean blood glucose concentration during the 9-hour period after administration. Adjustments in dosage of PZI were made as needed to attain control of glycemia.
    RESULTS: For all cats, a significant increase in mean dosage of PZI and significant decreases in 9-hour mean blood glucose concentration, lowest mean blood glucose concentration, and mean serum fructosamine concentration were detected. For cats with poorly controlled diabetes, 9-hour mean blood glucose concentration and mean serum fructosamine concentration were significantly decreased on day 45, compared with day 0. Ninety percent of owners reported improvement or resolution of clinical signs by day 45. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Results suggest that PZI was effective for control of glycemia in cats with newly diagnosed or poorly controlled diabetes and may be used as an initial treatment or as an alternative treatment in cats that do not respond to treatment with other types of insulin.
  • Effect of insulin dosage on glycemic response in dogs with diabetes mellitus: 221 cases (1993-1998).
    Hess RS, Ward CR
    Dept of Clin Studies, School of Vet Med, Univ of Penn, Philadelphia 19104-6010, USA.
    J Am Vet Med Assoc 2000, 216(2):217-221
    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate glycemic response to insulin treatment in dogs with diabetes mellitus. DESIGN: Retrospective study. ANIMALS: 221 dogs with diabetes mellitus. PROCEDURE: Type and dosage of insulin used, minimum and maximum blood glucose concentrations, time of blood glucose concentration nadir, and optimal duration of action of insulin were determined on the basis of data obtained prior to initial examination at the teaching hospital (127 dogs), at the time of initial examination (212 dogs), at the time a second follow-up blood glucose curve was performed (59 dogs), and at the time of clinical control of diabetes mellitus (83 dogs). RESULTS: Prior to examination, 69 of 127 dogs (54%) received 1 s.c. insulin injection daily. Thirty-one dogs (24%) received a high dose of insulin (i.e., > 1.5 U/kg [0.7 U/lb] of body weight); 27 of these dogs (87%) received 1 injection/d. Eleven of 16 dogs (69%) that were hypoglycemic (blood glucose concentration < 80 mg/dl) also received 1 injection/d. However, optimal duration of action of insulin was > 12 hours in only 5 of 83 dogs (6%) evaluated at the time diabetes mellitus was clinically controlled. At that time, only 1 dog (1%) received a high dose of insulin, and the dog received 2 injections/d. Moreover, 8 of 10 dogs (80%) with hypoglycemia received 1 injection/d.
    CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Most dogs with diabetes mellitus are clinically regulated with 2 daily insulin injections. Administration of a high dose of insulin or development of hypoglycemia may be more common in diabetic dogs that receive insulin once daily, compared with dogs that receive insulin twice daily.
  • Vet J. 2003 May;165(3):240-7. : Time trends and risk factors for diabetes mellitus in dogs: analysis of veterinary medical data base records (1970-1999).
    Guptill L, Glickman L, Glickman N.
    Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907, USA.
    guptillc@purdue.edu

    The objectives of the study were to identify recent trends in the prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM) in dogs and to identify host risk factors. Veterinary Medical Data Base (VMDB) electronic records of 6860 dogs with a diagnosis of DM (VMDB code 870178500) between 1970 and 1999 were evaluated to determine time trends. Records of 6707 dogs with DM and 6707 frequency matched dogs with any diagnosis other than DM from the same teaching hospitals in the same year, selected as controls, were evaluated for risk factor analysis. The prevalence of DM in dogs presented to veterinary teaching hospitals increased from 19 cases per 10,000 admissions per year in 1970 to 64 cases per 10,000 in 1999, while the case-fatality rate decreased from 37% to 5%. The hospital prevalence of DM was consistently greater over time in older compared with younger dogs with the highest prevalence occurring in dogs 10-15 years of age. Dogs weighing <22.7 kg had a significantly (P<0.001) greater risk of DM compared with heavier dogs. Female dogs had an increased risk of DM compared with males (P<0.001).

  • Am J Vet Res. 2003 Jan;64(1):7-11. : Corneal sensitivity in dogs with diabetes mellitus.
    Good KL, Maggs DJ, Hollingsworth SR, Scagliotti RH, Nelson RW.
    Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, CA 95616, USA.

    OBJECTIVE: To compare aesthesiometer-determined corneal sensitivity between diabetic and nondiabetic dogs and to investigate the correlation between corneal sensitivity and duration of diabetes or status of glycemic control, as estimated by use of glycated blood protein concentrations. ANIMALS: 23 diabetic and 29 nondiabetic normoglycemic dogs. PROCEDURE: A Cochet-Bonnet aesthesiometer was used to measure corneal touch threshold (CTT) in 5 corneal regions of each dog. At the time of ocular examination, duration of diabetes mellitus was estimated from the history, and blood was drawn for assessment of blood glycosylated hemoglobin and serum fructosamine concentrations. RESULTS: Median CTT for central, nasal, dorsal, temporal, and ventral corneal regions in nondiabetic dogs (1.6, 2.3, 2.8, 2.8, and 5.1 g/mm2, respectively) was significantly lower than in diabetic dogs (2.8, 4.0, 5.1, 5.1, and 6.6 g/mm2, respectively). Median regional CTT in diabetic dogs was not significantly correlated with estimated duration of diabetes mellitus or blood glycated protein concentrations. No significant difference was found in regional CTT between eyes of normoglycemic dogs with unilateral cataracts. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Diabetic dogs have significantly reduced corneal sensitivity in all regions, compared with nondiabetic normoglycemic dogs. Regional variation in corneal sensitivity is similar in diabetic and normoglycemic dogs. Neither glycemic control nor duration of diabetes, as estimated, is significantly correlated with corneal hyposensitivity. Corneal nerve dysfunction may be associated with recurrent or nonhealing ulcers in diabetic dogs for which no other underlying cause can be found.

  • Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2002 Nov 29;197(1-2):213-9. : Pathogenesis of feline diabetes mellitus.
    O'Brien TD.
    Department of Veterinary Diagnostic Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory, University of Minnesota, 1333 Gortner Avenue, 55108, St. Paul, MN, USA
    The common form of spontaneous diabetes mellitus that occurs in domestic cats bears close resemblance clinically and pathologically to human type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). For example, the typical diabetic cat is obese and middle-aged, and has low but detectable circulating insulin levels. However, the most striking similarity is the occurrence of islet amyloidosis (IA) in nearly all diabetic cats and in over 90% of humans with T2DM. IA in both humans and cats is derived from islet amyloid polypeptide (IAPP, or amylin) which is a hormone produced and secreted along with insulin by the pancreatic beta cells. Since all cats and humans normally produce IAPP, additional factors must be invoked in order to explain the development of IA. Several lines of evidence support the concept that IA is caused by chronically increased stimulus for beta cells to secrete IAPP (and insulin). For example, peripheral insulin resistance such as in chronic obesity results in increased IAPP and insulin secretion. A recent study, in which diabetes mellitus was induced in cats, demonstrated that IAPP hypersecretion was induced by treatment with a sulfonylurea drug and resulted in 4/4 cats in this group developing IA. In contrast, cats treated with insulin had low IAPP secretion and minimal IA developed in 1/4 cats. Several human-IAPP transgenic mouse models, in which there is IAPP overexpression, also support the notion that prolonged high expression of IAPP leads to IA. In vitro models of IAPP overexpression also support this mechanism for IA formation and by demonstrating an association between IA formation and beta cell toxicity, suggest a linkage between IA formation and loss of beta cells in T2DM. A recent study has indicated that intermediate-sized IAPP-derived amyloid fibrils can disrupt cell membranes and therefore, may be involved in the destruction of beta cells. Striking parallels between the pathogenesis of IA and beta-amyloid plaque formation in Alzheimer's disease suggest possible parallel pathogenetic mechanisms of cell death and provide potential avenues for future studies into the pathogenesis of IA.

  • J Neuropathol Exp Neurol. 2002 Oct;61(10):872-84. : Neurological complications associated with spontaneously occurring feline diabetes mellitus.
    Mizisin AP, Shelton GD, Burgers ML, Powell HC, Cuddon PA.
    Department of Pathology, School of Medicine, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla 92093-0612, USA.
    In this study, neurological complications associated with spontaneously occurring feline diabetes were comprehensively evaluated. Physical and neurological examinations, electrophysiological assessment, and biochemical and histological analysis of nerve and muscle biopsy specimens were performed in 19 diabetic cats and referenced to similar data from 28 nondiabetic cats without evidence of neuropathy. Compared to nondiabetic cats, diabetic cats exhibited a range of functional, structural, and biochemical defects that, depending on severity, manifested as striking neurological dysfunction. A broad spectrum of clinical signs was apparent with the most notable and severe impairment being a plantigrade posture when standing or walking. A sensorimotor neuropathy, characterized by conduction deficits and increased F wave and cord dorsum potential latencies, was present in both pelvic and thoracic limbs and, except in the most severely affected animals, occurred with little or no electromyographic abnormality. As for nerve structural abnormalities, Schwann cell injury was prevalent and included myelin defects, such as splitting and ballooning, and demyelination, although axonal degeneration was noted in biopsies from severely affected cats. Evidence of polyol pathway activity consisted of marked increases in nerve fructose without appreciable sorbitol accumulation. The occurrence of diabetic neuropathy in the cat, a relatively large animal with a long life span and long nerves, provides unique opportunities to study the development and treatment of this debilitating complication.

  • Br J Nutr. 2002 Dec;88 Suppl 3:S287-92. : New legume sources as therapeutic agents.
    Madar Z, Stark AH.
    The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Faculty of Agricultural, Food and Environmental Quality Sciences, Institute of Biochemistry, Food Science and Nutrition, P.O. Box 12, Rehovot, 76100, Israel.
    madar@agri.huji.ac.il
    This review evaluates the potential health benefits of three legume sources that rarely appear in Western diets and are often overlooked as functional foods. Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum graecum) and isolated fenugreek fractions have been shown to act as hypoglycaemic and hypocholesterolaemic agents in both animal and human studies. The unique dietary fibre composition and high saponin content in fenugreek appears to be responsible for these therapeutic properties. Faba beans (Vicia faba) have lipid-lowering effects and may also be a good source of antioxidants and chemopreventive factors. Mung beans (Phaseolus aureus, Vigna radiatus) are thought to be beneficial as an antidiabetic, low glycaemic index food, rich in antioxidants. Evidence suggests that these three novel sources of legumes may provide health benefits when included in the daily diet.
    Influence of a high fibre diet on glycaemic control and quality of life in dogs with diabetes mellitus
    P. A. Graham, I. E. Maskell, J. M. Rawlings, A. S. Nash, P. J. Markwell
    Dept of Vet Clin Stud, Univ of Glasgow Vet School, Bearsden Road, Bearsden, Glasgow G61 1QH; Waltham Centre
    for Pet Nutrition, Freeby Lane, Waltham-on-the-Wolds, Melton Mowbray, Leicestershire LE14 4RT
    Journal of Small Animal Practice (2002) 43, 67-73
    

    A study was undertaken to evaluate a high fibre diet used in the management of 10 dogs with naturally occurring insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Following baseline measurements of health and glycaemic control, the dogs were fed a canned diet containing a blend of insoluble and soluble dietary fibres and were monitored during the ensuing four months. Switching to the high fibre diet was associated with significantly lower mean 24-hour and postprandial plasma glucose concentrations, which were maintained over the study period. The high fibre diet was also associated with significant reductions in plasma concentrations of fructosamine, glycated haemoglobin, free glycerol and cholesterol, and there were significant improvements in dog activity and demeanour. Bodyweight declined during the fourth month of feeding the diet, which is likely to have resulted from underfeeding relative to increased activity. The results indicate that a high fibre diet can significantly improve glycaemic control and quality of life in dogs with diabetes mellitus.

  • Management of canine diabetes.The diet fed should primarily be palatable and nutritionally balanced. Improved glycemic control may be achieved in some dogs if the diet contains increased insoluble fiber.
  • Nutritional management of diabetic dogs
    RL Remillard
    Angell Mem Anim Hosp,Boston,MA USA
    Compendium on Continuing Education for the Practicing Veterinarian, 1999,
    21, 8, 699
    The goals of nutritional therapy in the management of diabetes mellitus are to approach physiologic blood glucose levels, match postprandial glucose absorption with insulin therapy, attain and maintain optimal body weight, reduce the likelihood of diabetic complications, and address other concurrent disease conditions amenable to dietary therapy. Managing diabetes mellitus requires a consistent feeding plan and food that minimizes postprandial fluctuations in blood glucose concentrations. Because fiber modulates blood glucose levels and favors optimum body weight maintenance, the single most effective dietary tool in the medical management of diabetic dogs is feeding a diet containing insoluble or soluble fiber at 8% to 18% on a dry-matter basis.
    LONG-TERM MANAGEMENT OF THE DIABETIC DOG.
    L M. Fleeman,J S. Rand
    The University of Queensland
    Waltham Focus Vol.10, No.
    
    KEY POINTS
  • Insulin is the mainstay of therapy for diabetic dogs.
  • The majority of diabetic dogs require twice-daily administration of insulin to control their signs.
  • Insulin and dietary recommendations need to be tailored for each diabetic dog.
  • A consistent insulin-dosing and feeding routine is optimal, although not critical. For practical reasons, a certain amount of compromise may be necessary, and is often not associated with significant clinical consequences.
  • The diet fed should primarily be palatable and nutritionally balanced.
  • Results of recent studies indicate that improved glycaemic control may be achieved in the majority of diabetic dogs if their diet contains increased insoluble fibre.
  • Decreased dietary fat content is recommended if there is concurrent disease of the exocrine pancreas.
  • Blindness due to cataract formation occurs in the majority of diabetic dogs.
    INTRODUCTION
    Diabetes mellitus is a common endocrine disease of middle-aged and older dogs characterised by an absolute or relative deficiency of insulin (1). Insulin administration is the mainstay of therapy in all affected dogs, with long-term treatment involving injections given once or twice each day by the owner. The cause of diabetes in dogs has been poorly characterised and is undoubtedly multifactorial. Genetic predisposition exists (1) and immune-mediated destruction of pancreatic beta-cells has been shown to occur in affected dogs (2-5).
    IAMS
    
    Eukanuba Veterinary Diets® Nutritional Weight Maintenance Formula Glucose-Control, a new therapeutic diet formulated to nutritionally
    manage glucose metabolism in dogs with diabetes and those with a high risk of developing the disease.
    Works by concentrating on three objectives: blunting the glucose surge experienced immediately after a meal, improving the efficiency of
    glucose storage and maintaining an appropriate weight.
    Innovative ingredients to accomplish  these three objectives including a fermentable fiber blend, a viscous fiber, a starch blend, chromium and
    L-carnitine.
    
    Fermentable fiber such as beet pulp, FOS and gum arabic produce short chain fatty acids which increase glucagon-like peptide levels,
    stimulating the release of insulin at the  appropriate time to help store glucose.
    Carboxymethylcellulose is a highly viscous fiber that delays gastric emptying, which in turn blunts the glucose surge, the company says.
    The precise starch blend of sorghum and barley in Glucose-Control helps nutritionally manage the dog's blood
    sugar. Chromium tripicolinate helps nutritionally manage  glucose metabolism in dogs. L-Carnitine, which is a
    vitamin-like substance, aids in the transfer of fatty acids across the membranes of the mitochondria so they can be used as an energy source,
    the company says.
    
    Glucose-Control diet is ideal for diabetic dogs, obese dogs  and older dogs with the potential for impaired glucose metabolism, dogs that have a
    tendency to become  overweight and as a transition diet for weight loss.
    
    Contact:The IAM'S Company (800) 535-8387
    
    diets
    Molly's diet
    http://www.petdiabetes.org/diet.htm